POPs GMP data visualization and analysis
 

Human tissues data in GMP reports

POPs detected in human tissues were mostly reported as lipid-adjusted concentrations and mostly as annual point estimates. Profile of reported chemicals in human tissues – breast milk and human blood – is expectedly partially different from that reported for ambient air. The spectrum of chemicals and their spatial and temporal coverage reported for breast milk and human blood were significantly lower than those for ambient air.

Fig. 1. Geographical coverage of GMP1 reported data for breast milk

Fig. 1. Geographical coverage of GMP1 reported data for breast milk

Fig. 2. Geographical coverage of GMP1 reported data for human blood

Fig. 2. Geographical coverage of GMP1 reported data for human blood

GMP1 reports cover 121 variables (congeners, isomers or transformation products) in breast milk and 82 in human blood; however, a large fraction of data is reported only as an outcome of occasional sampling campaigns performed at one given time point. Time series suitable for modelling of the temporal trends are much less frequent than in the case of ambient air. Nevertheless, all of the original 12 POPs in the Stockholm Convention were found in GMP report.

GMP reports - breast milk data

The most common substances tracked in the breast milk all over the world are dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (often reported as a sum of PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All these groups of compounds are usually expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQ) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (in pg/g of lipid). Reported chemicals also adequately followed the recommendation of the Stockholm Convention; all of the original 12 POPs as well as analytes specified in the Guidance on GMP (2007) were covered in the first GMP report. Large spatial coverage of breast milk data (41 countries) and a sufficient time scale of collected data in some countries allow for a comparison among regions and basic evaluation of trends.

GMP reports - blood data

There were four kinds of blood samples reported in the GMP reports: maternal blood, core blood, serum and plasma. In blood, there were 82 parameters (congeners, isomers, transformation products and TEQs) reported covering all original 12 SC POPs. Similarly to breast milk, a relatively large fraction of compounds was reported only occasionally. The results of human blood monitoring were reported from 17 countries; spatial coverage is thus not as widespread as in the case of breast milk.
The most frequently reported substances were HCB, DDE and DDT (mainly p,p- isomers), PCB 153, dieldrin and beta-HCH.

 

Last update: 18 January 2013